This data set (hereafter referred to as Manga109) has been compiled by the Aizawa Yamasaki Laboratory, Department of Information and Communication Engineering, the Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, the University of Tokyo. The compilation is intended for use in academic research on the media processing of Japanese manga. Manga109 is composed of 109 manga volumes drawn by professional manga artists in Japan. These manga were commercially made available to the public between the 1970s and 2010s, and encompass a wide range of target readerships and genres (see the table in Explore for further details.) Most of the manga in the compilation are available at the manga library “Manga Library Z” (formerly the “Zeppan Manga Toshokan” library of out-of-print manga).

Consent was obtained from the authors for the use of their works in the Manga109 compilation under the conditions given below. “Use,” as it is referred to here, includes the processing of manga frames. The scope of authorized use is restricted to academic purposes only. Specifically, academic use of the compilation is authorized with regard to the following:

  1. Experiments making use of the data set
  2. The inclusion of manga from the data set in academic papers
  3. The inclusion of such academic papers in the digital libraries of academic societies, etc.
  4. The use of the data set in digital media such as demonstration videos that publish research findings
Users are requested to not pass the data set to a third party. When including manga material in an academic paper or video, users are requested to acknowledge the author’s copyright to the material by including the copyright mark © followed by the author’s name, and to acknowledge their use of Manga109. In addition, when quoting Manga109 material in an academic paper, users are requested to cite the related papers. Neither the original authors nor the persons managing Manga109 shall be responsible for any claims, damages, or other liabilities arising from the use of this data set or related software by users.

We extend our thanks to Mr. Ken Akamatsu and to the authors for their cooperation in the creation of Manga109. We also acknowledge the support of the Strategic Information and Communications R&D Promotion Programme (SCOPE) and KAKENHI in the construction of this data set.